(Français) Les Huiles Essentielles – 101

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Posted by Isabelle Louis XVI on Wednesday, May 10, 2017
  • Bath Salts – The Ultimate relaxation

    There must be quite a few things a hot bath won’t cure, but I don’t know many of them.   – Sylvia Plath

    Don’t underestimate the power of a warm bath.  After a long day at the office or running around with the kids or just as a great way to end the day, what could be more relaxing than to soak in a nice scented bath.  It is well known that the use of water has many benefits for the body.  There is a name for that, its called hydrotherapy.  Baths are good for all kinds of things, whether it’s to relieve sore muscles, to soothe a troubled soul, to feel better when you have flu or simply for pleasure and relaxation. A bath is good for you.

    Who has never bought a perfumed bath salts in their life?

    Hydrotherapy, Aromatherapy and Herbalism goes so well together.

    Despite the fact that I love scented baths, I must admit that I haven’t bought bath salts in stores for several years.

    First of all, if you have gotten used to reading ingredients labels when you buy a product, you have noticed that most companies add more than questionable ingredients in the products we use.  There are lots of ingredients such as synthetic fragrances, synthetic dyes, preservatives, and the list goes on.

    Most of these chemical ingredients are irritating and even toxic for us.  I can’t repeat it enough, it’s super important to read the list of ingredients before you buy a product.  It is your responsibility to know what you are buying and using in your home.  Above all, do not rely on the packaging.  Marketing is deceptive and companies use creative advertising to express, suggest or even say pretty much anything.  This is called “greenwashing”.

    One way I have found to resolve this problem is to make some of my products myself.  Making a bath salt is super easy and you can constantly modify it to your preferences.  Let me show you how.

    Rule #1 in aromatherapy

    Despite the fact that essential oils are not oily to the touch, they are still oils.  And as you know, oils and water don’t mix well together.  So when you want to add essential oils to your bath, you must use another product that will facilitate the dispersion of the oils in your bath water.

    That’s where salt comes in. When you pour the essential oils over the salt, they are absorbed by the salt and then the salt will be diluted and dispersed throughout the bath water.  This prevents you from having a drop of essential oil floating on the surface of the water.

    For an aromatic bath, you could simply take 1/2 cup of epsom salt and add 8 to 10 drops of the essential oils of your choice for an adult (4-5 for a child).

    But why keep it simple, whe we can make it complicated!?

    Here’s a recipe that I created last week:

    Print Recipe
    Bath Salts - Ultimate Relaxation
    Prep Time 5 minutes
    Essential Oils (100% pure and natural)
    Dried flowers
    Prep Time 5 minutes
    Essential Oils (100% pure and natural)
    Dried flowers
    1. Start by grinding the oats to create a soft powder
    2. In a bowl, mix all ingredients together. Do not add dried flowers yet.
    3. Add Essential Oils and mix well. Make sure to remove any clumps.
    4. Now, you can add some dried flowers. It makes the bath salt look prettier and it also contribute to the aromatherapy.
    5. You can bottle seperatly and offer as a gift. Fun idea: When you give bath salt as a gift, you can add a surprise inside. I added some gemstones. When the person will enjoy her bath salt, she fill find the surprise.
    6. On this picture, you can see 2 gemstones Pink Quartz: Healing properties, the perfect stone for love and the heart chakra. Cornelian: Very grounding stone. She brings vitality and motivation to the person who carries it.


    When making your bath salts in the future, you can use different ingredients as you wish. Use whatever you have on hand.

    You can substitute oats with clay. You can add ginger powder for its anti-inflammatory properties.

    Use different essential oils according to your mood or your needs.

    And why not add a handful of medicinal herbs or tea leaves or beautiful soothing flowers? Each ingredient brings different benefits.

    Epsom salt

    Epsom salt is actually composed of sulphate and magnesium, it’s a great way to provide your body with magnesium.  This will be absorbed through the pores of your skin when you soak in the bath.

    It promotes relaxation, helps to relieve tension, pain and muscle stiffness.

    This type of salt participates in the elimination of cellular waste and facilitates the body’s detoxification process.

    Promotes hydration and makes the skin soft.  It is excellent to relieve sunburn and other skin irritations.

    Beware of perfumed epsom salt, it is very likely that synthetic fragrances are used.

    Sea Salt

    There are different types of sea salts and all are composed of different mineral salts.

    Dead Sea Salt contains large amounts of minerals such as magnesium, potassium, calcium.  This salt comes from the evaporation of sea water, or sometimes from mines.

    Be careful, sea salt can dry out the skin if used alone.

    Pink salt from the Himalayas

    Formed over 250 million years ago.  The Himalayan mountain were once covered by an ocean (Tethys) and now this salt is found in northern Pakistan in large underground salt deposits.

    Pink Himalayan salt is rich in iron, hence its colour.

    It promotes good blood circulation, It helps to balance the blood pH.

    It is known for its high purity in mineral salts (more than 80) and trace elements.

    It has regenerating, mineralizing, firming and detoxifying effects.

    Sodium bicarbonate

    Thanks to its alkalizing properties, the addition of bicarbonate to the bath water softens the water.

    Excellent for relieving skin irritation and itching.


    Oat leaves the skin soft and moisturized. It relieves dryness, itching and other types of skin problems.


    Clay is known for its cleansing, softening, detoxifying and soothing properties.

    It is a material rich in minerals, especially silica and trace elements such as iron, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium.

    It offers a mineralizing, regenerating and absorbent action.

    Goat’s milk powder

    It is perfect for relieving certain skin disorders.

    Soothing to the skin, perfect for children and sensitive skin.

    Citric acid:

    Use it to create an effervescent bath salt.

    Essential Oils

    Here are different ideas of essential oils you can try

    Click here if you’d like to get the essential oils I use.

    I hope you enjoyed the article.

    Feel free to follow me on facebook and instagram if you like this kind of information, I publish very regularly.  Come and say Hi to me.

    Have a nice day.

    Isabelle -Votre Amie Essentielle








  • Superfood Energy Bar ”Squares, Balls, Bites ? That is the only question

    Do you ever feel like you are constantly running to get somewhere?  Are you often eating on the go?

    Here’s a quick and easy recipe to make. It is loaded with nutrious ingredients.  You can play with the recipe as you go.


    Nutritional science keeps evolving, and it is becoming clearer that the human body needs a mixture of different types of healthy foods to keep us at the top of our game mentally and physically.

    Feel free to substitute any ingredients in it except the dates and coconut.

    Use ingredients that you have on hands.

    Blend it less if you want chunk in it, blend it more if you want a smooth bar.

    Have fun with it and ask your kids to be your little helper.  They will love it.


    Print Recipe
    Energy Proteins Squares or Balls - Superfood
    No baking, easy to make. Made with super nutritious ingredients only Make them so you know what's in them!
    Prep Time 15
    Cook Time 0
    Passive Time 30
    Base for your Energy Bar
    Add Seeds
    Add Nuts (if you are not allergic)
    Add Superfood
    Add Flavors
    Food Flavouring Essential Oils (Therapeutic grade only)
    Prep Time 15
    Cook Time 0
    Passive Time 30
    Base for your Energy Bar
    Add Seeds
    Add Nuts (if you are not allergic)
    Add Superfood
    Add Flavors
    Food Flavouring Essential Oils (Therapeutic grade only)
    1. Combine dates, coconut oil and Coconut flakes in the food processor and pulse to mix well.
    2. Add seeds and the grounded chia & flax seeds to the mix and blend some more.
    3. If you are not allergic to nuts, add your choices of nuts. PS, if you want more texture, add the nuts at the end of the preparation. When using the food processor, don't pulse too much so you keep chunk of nuts in your energy balls.
    4. Add ''Superfood'' of your choice Raw, Natural, Nutritional Goodness! There is so much variety of superfood powder on the market right now, be creative, use what you have at home: Baobab, Maca, Moringa, Spirulina, Açai, Cacao, Turmeric, Bee pollen, Matcha, Camu Camu and of course Wolfberry 🙂
    5. Blend the mix well
    6. Give flavor to your energy bars I like to separate the base in 3 or 4 differents batches. Place in different bowl and then flavor each one differently. This is the time to add essential oils to add extra tang. Remember, 1 drop goes a long way. Don't over do it. try 3-4 drops and then taste. You can add dark chocolate and peppermint essential oils in one group. You can add orange zest and citrus essential oils in another. I like spices, so I always make one with turmeric and Black pepper essential oils
    7. Then I place the mixture on parchemin paper and I flat it out. I make a rectangle and let it cool down in the fridge for at least 30 minutes. I make squares or bar because it is faster, but for a better look, you can also make balls. When I make balls, I like to coat them with cacao powder and/or coconut shread so they are not sticky.
    8. When your energy bar have cool down, you can cut them into pieces of the size that you want. I freeze them so they stay fresh longer. Bon Appetit!
    Recipe Notes

    This recipe is super easy to make.


    Here’s some extra information for you.
    Why do I grind Flax and Chia seeds?

    You need to grind flax seeds so your body can absorb the nutrients.  If you don’t grind them, they will just pass through your body and you won’t get any nutrient out of them.

    Unlike flax seeds, Chia seeds don’t need to be grinded for absorption, but when you do, you make them easier to digest.

    FLAX SEEDS: Excellente source of alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), a plant-based omega-3, high in lignans, a plant compound that has antioxidant properties.

    Flaxseed contains both soluble and insoluble fibers. Soluble fibers help maintain a good blood sugar and cholesterol levels and it also work as a prebiotic to feed the good bacteria in your gut.  Insoluble fibers work as a broom to keep your intestin clean.  Flaxseed are a great source of vitamins and minerals ( E, K, C, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus)

    CHIA SEEDS: These amazing energy enhancer are gluten-free.  Chia seeds are high in protein, omega-3, antioxidants flavonoids such as quercetin. They are low glycemic food and can help balance blood sugar. Contains Vitamins and minerals such as niacin which help reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.  High in calcium, phosphorus and manganese minerals. Chia seeds are an excellents source of fiber and offer a unique blend of  soluble and insoluble fibers.  When soaked, chia seeds creates a gelatinous affect.

    What?  Did you say Cricket Flour???

    Yep, this powder is made from crickets, but let me just say, you won’t taste anything bad in here.

    The flavor of cricket flour is mildly nutty and more pleasant than expected.  Actually, if I don’t tell you, you probably wouldn’t even notice.

    I use crickets flour because it is really high in proteins.  crickets are about 58 to 65 percent protein per bug.  Some amino acids common in insects are Lysine and Tryptophan.

    It also have high nutritional value.

    They are high in vitamins and essential minerals: Vitamin B-12, Potassium, Calcium,  Iron (twice as much as spinach), Magnesium, Selenium and fatty acids.


    What is Bee Pollen?

    Bee pollen is a natural mixture of flower pollen, nectar, bee secretions, enzymes, honey and wax used as a nutritional supplement.

    It has a nutrient-rich profile that includes tocopherol (Vit E), niacin (B3), thiamine (B1), biotin, folate, polyphenols, carotenoid pigments, phytosterols, enzymes, and co-enzymes.

    Bee pollen has very high antioxidant properties similar to those of fermented foods.

    Bee pollen is said to enhance energy, sharpen memory, slow the aging process, promote weight loss, and improve athletic performance. It has anti-inflammatory properties also and also strengthen the immune system.

    IMPORTANT: Taking bee pollen with warfarin (Coumadin) might result in an increased chance of bruising or bleeding.


    So many things are said about apricot Kernels, are they safe to eat?

    Apricots kernels share many similar properties and uses with almonds.

    They’re also loaded with healthy fats that help to lower “bad” cholesterol. The kernels contain essential fatty acids (omega-6s and omega-3s). These help fight heart disease, improve mental health.

    Apricot kernels also contain the chemical compound amygdalin.  This has been previously linked to cancer-fighting claims.  None of these claim have been proven.

    After reading many documents talking about Apricot kernels, I personnaly choose to add small amount in my nutrition.  I would suggest that you make your own research on amygdalin (vit K17) and that you decide for yourself.



    Before I go, here are some flavoring ideas:

    Orange/Chocolate: Add zests from an Orange and 6 drops of Orange essential oils

    Refreshing Peppermint: Add 5-6 drops of peppermint vitality or peppermint + essential oils

    Blood sugar regulator: Add 3 drops of Cinnamon bark EO and 3 drops of Ocotea essential oils

    Try them and please share with us some of your ideas.

    Bon Appetit

    Isabelle – Votre Amie Essentielle



  • Yummy Cranberry Orange Muffins

    At home, it’s a tradition.

    By the end of october, beginning of november, I must bake some cranberry and orange muffins.

    Over the years, my recipe has changed and evolved.  I always try to improve its nutritional value while reducing its glycemic impact.  Without affecting the taste of course.

    These muffin are perfectly bitter, with a tang of orange.  Its a great snack for the kids and ….for mommy and daddy.


    Print Recipe
    Yummy Cranberry Orange Muffins
    Prep Time 15
    Cook Time 25
    Prep Time 15
    Cook Time 25
    1. Preheat oven to 200 C (425F)
    2. Spray a 12 cup muffin tray or line it with paper. If you are not using the 12 muffin holes, add some water in the empty space to protect your tray, but also to help with even baking.
    3. In a food processor, process the cranberries for about 5 seconds. You want to have them broken down into little pieces. You can also use a knife. NB: If you use frozen cranberries, you don't want to thaw them. Just mix them in flour and add 5 to 10 minutes of baking time.
    4. Zest the orange and set aside You can also add 2-3 drops of orange essential oils to the wet mix. It will give more flavor.
    5. In a bowl, combine the dry ingredients: Flour, baking powder (cream of tartar and baking soda), salt. Sift and Stir to combine.
    6. In another bowl, combine the butter, the honey and the lakanto. Mix well with a whisk. Add the eggs, yogourt, milk, vanilla and essential oils.
    7. Pour the wet ingredients into the dry and mix with a big spoon, just until combined. Do not over mix.
    8. Gently fold the cranberry and zests into the batter.
    9. Divide the batter evenly between the 12 muffin cups. Bake for 20-25 minutes, or until the muffins are golden on top and a toothpick inserted in the center of the muffin comes out clean.
    10. Let stand 5 minutes. Unmould on a rack to cool down. You can eat them now or freeze them for later.
    11. Bon Appétit!
  • Detox – Castor oil Pack

    Awhh, those good old remedies from our grandmothers. We love them so much and we have a good reason do to so. THEY WORK. It was good back then and its still good today. 

    A little bit of history  …

    Historical documents, including the Ebers papyrus dating back to more than 1550 BC demonstrate that castor oil was used therapeutically in several European countries: Egypt, India, China, Persia, Africa, Greece , Rome, southern Europe and even here in America.

    The Romans called it ” Palma Christi” because of the shape of the leaf that reminds the shape of a hand. The Greeks knew it under the name Kiki. In Sanskrit, its known as: Eranda and Vatarl while among the Hebrews it is Kikayon.

    In my hometown, my Grandma called it beavers oil. In french, a beaver is called a castor. So I really thought that castor oil was made from beavers. Lol!

    The therapeutic use of castor oil came back to fame in the 19th century thanks to Edgar Cayce, also known as “The Sleeping Prophet”. The latter was a medium who used his gift of mediumship  to help find therapies and solutions to different health problems. When he was in hypnosis / trance, he could answer questions about different topics including healing, reincarnation, Atlantis, and several other subjects. He was often criticized and many considered him “Quackery”.  No matter what you think of Cayce, the fact is that many of his suggestions worked very well. This is the case for the castor oil pack.  Nowadays, we could compare him to Anthony Williams: ” The Medical Medium ”. In both cases, we like them or we don’t,  but still there are several useful information that have been disclosed by the two characters.

    Edgar Cayce considered himself a spiritual leader. He encouraged his “patients” to test the solutions and not accept them as pure dogma. I invite you to do the same. When you discover a new type of treatment that is safe, of course, I urge you to experience it for yourself. Watch if it gives you benefits. If it relieves you, if it helps you in anyway. I strongly believe that plants and nature in general can provide us with many good therapies.  If we use them properly, they can help us feel better and live healthier lives.

    What is castor oil?

    Castor oil is extracted from castor bean, the seeds of the Ricinus Communis plant and contains fatty acids that give it moisturizing, nourishing and invigorating properties. Ricinoleic acid makes up 87% of castor oil and is responsible for a large part of its therapeutic properties (especially anti-inflammatory).  This thick oil is also very rich in natural vitamin E. Use it directly on the skin to moisturize or as a carrier oil for your essential oils.

    Castor oil is considered GRAS by the FDA. This term means that it is generally recognized as being safe to be taken internally.

    However, I favor its use externally.


    Benefits and uses of castor oil:

    1. Help in reducing pain
    2. Anti-inflammatory effects
    3. Improve lymphatic drainage and circulation
    4. Cellulite: A daily massage of castor oil in which you have added a formula of anti-cellulite essential oils such as grapefruit and cypress might helps fight cellulite by stimulating the lymphatic system.
    5. Intestinal disorders: constipation, loose stools, poor elimination, gas and bloating
    6. Liver and Gallbladder Disorders: Hepatic steatosis, gallstones
    7. General detoxification, helps improve liver function
    8. May help destroy and eliminate the ‘biofilm’ barrier that protects harmful bacteria and fungus such as candida.
    9. Gynecological conditions: irregular menstruation, uterine fibroids, uterine and ovarian cysts, urinary symptoms, fibrocystic changes of the breast.
    10. Pulmonary congestion, asthma, bronchitis and acute colds
    11. Relieving muscular or arthritic pain, sports injuries, swollen joints, bursitis and muscle tension,
    12. Skin care, cuts, dry skin, cracked heels, cracking, burning, psoriasis, insect bites, itching, sunburn, fungal infection.

    It is used topically, in massage or poultice, for its anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving, analgesic, anti fungal, antiviral, antibacterial and lymphatic decongestant action.

    Internally, it is a powerful laxative. It is known to relieve constipation and help start labor in late pregnancy. *** Please note that it is not recommended to use it orally without medical advice. The laxative effect can be very violent.

    Support immune system 

    The most common assumption about the positive effect of castor oil on the immune system is that it increase the number of T cells in the skin and it also increase the number of prostaglandins¹. The increase in the number of T-11 cells represents a general strengthening of the body’s defense status.

    The lymphatic system represents the body’s sewer system. Toxins, infections, heavy metals, dead cells and debris all over the body are collected and cleaned by the lymphatic system and then brought to the liver for filtration and emptied through the colon. When our lymphatic system is not functioning properly, waste and toxins can accumulate, which can lead to a weakened immune system, ineffective stools, worsening of food sensitivity and ultimately to inflammation and inflammation related diseases.

    Therefore, castor oil poultices can increase lymphatic drainage, detoxify the body, strengthen the immune system, improve bowel movements, reduce food sensitivities, decrease inflammation, prevent disease and ultimately improve global health.

    It’s very similar to the CTRL ALT DELETE action we do on our computer when we want to restart it.

    Castor oil pack 

    Here’s a home therapy that you can do regularly to improve your lymphatic drainage, detoxify your body, promote longevity and preserve your health. This should be a holistic approach including a healthy lifestyle, exercise, diet, sleep, dietary supplements and hydration.

    Digest better ⇒ Absorb better ⇒ Eliminate better ⇒ Sleep better ⇒ Think better = LIVE BETTER

    The castor oil pack is simply a piece of flannel that is soaked in oil, that is then placed on a part of the body where its needed. Heat can be used to maximize the action. Leave it on at least 45-60 minutes and apply for 3 to 4 consecutive days. 

    What you will need

    • Virgin castor oil, cold pressed, hexane and organic *
    • A big piece of organic cotton or wool flannel (uncolored) size of about 12 X 36: fold to make 3 layers of about 12 X 12. I bought mine in a fabrics store.
    • A plastic bag to protect against stains. A trash bag would do the trick. I opted instead for Laminated Polyurethane (PUL) to avoid plastic. It is a specialized fabric, created by applying a waterproof film to one side of a fabric. It is often used in the making of washable diapers. Make sure you have a larger pieces of plastic than the flannel to cover and protect against leaks. Castor oil, it stains !!!
    • A magic bag , a hot water bottle or a heating pad.  The applied heat helps the castor oil to penetrate into deeper layers of the skin.
    • Use a sheet or towel to protect the area where you will lay down.

    * When you purchase castor oil be vigilant of the quality. 

    Much of the castor oil sold on the market today comes from castor beans that have been heavily sprayed with pesticides that can damage beneficial phytonutrients and can contaminate the oil with toxins. You wouldn’t want to apply that on your skin. 

    I recommend buying organic castor oil.

    This is the brand that I used Palma Christi Or



    As you can see it’s quite easy. You only need to place flannel on top of the plastic bag and soak it with castor oil. 

    Note: For the first use, you will need more oil in order to soak the flannel, about 4-5 tablespoon.  The first few weeks, you will need to add 1-2 tablespoon of extra castor oil each time you apply. Eventually, the patch will be sufficiently saturated. At this point, it will not be necessary to add oil each time. You can do it once a week.  But be careful, you do not want it dripping.

    The castor oil pack is reusable about 30-40 times or more or less 9 months. Do not attempt to wash it. When it starts to get dirty, broken or if it starts to change color, just throw it in the trash and start a new one.

    That being said, if you face a very toxic situation, it is recommended to discard of the castor oil pack when you feel better and your treatments are finished. In this case, do not keep the patch for later use.


    The pack works much better when it is warm. I heat the fabric in the oven. Place the oil soaked cloth in a Pyrex style dish and heat in the oven at 150 degrees for 15 minutes. Be careful when you apply the patch on your skin, make sure its not too hot, you don’t want to burn yourself. Once its applied on the skin, I use hot water bottle  or hot magic bag to keep it warm. 


    Sit in a comfortable place where you can rest. By applying the pack, you stimulate skin-visceral reflexes that place your body in a parasympathetic state. This state is better known as the state of rest and digest. It’s when we are in this state that we repair and heal. Take this opportunity to do a meditation or do deep breathing exercises.

    Personally, I apply the patch at night before going to bed. I keep it all night long. This way, the treatment lasts longer and I don’t have to worry about finding 1 free hour in my day.

    Add Essential Oils to it

    If you want to increase therapeutic effect or help with a specific condition, you can add essential oils on your skin before applying the pack. I massage 2-3 drops of the chosen essential oils in the area that I will apply the cloth. 

    Here are a few oils that I like to use for this purpose: Helichrysum, Celery seed, Ledum, Endoflex, Fennel, Basil, Coriander, Digize, Frankincense, Cypress, Copaiba, Grapefruit

    Apply the warm cloth in the desired area  

    For a general detoxification, I apply directly above the liver and the gall bladders. It’s on the right side, at the level of the rib cage.

    For constipation, apply on the lower belly.

    For painful muscles, apply directly on site.

    Then, I cover the patch with a permeable cloth or plastic and I wrap myself with saran wrap or bandage tissue.  A trash bag can do the trick too. The idea is that you do not want to stain yourself.  I also wear old leggings on top.  

    Leave in place for 45-60 minutes and apply the heat bag. Be careful because once the castor oil pack is in place, it may drip a little. That’s why I stress that you protect the place on which you will lie down.

    Relax 〉 Breathe In 〉 Breathe Out 

    When I am done, I place the oily cloth in a mason jar and I keep it in the fridge until next use. 

    For maximum efficacy, it is recommended to use the pack 3-4 days in a row, then take a 4 day break before you start using it again.

    Repeat for about 4 consecutive weeks or until you feel better. Then I do occasional application to maintain good health. 

    For chronic diseases, I recommend applying castor oil every 2-3 days thereafter.

    In order to facilitate the detoxification process, you could take 1 tbsp. of high quality olive oil at night, before going to bed. You can also take 1 tbsp. after the 3rd castor oil pack session. 

    NB: The castor oil treatments are very mild and without any side effects. It is possible to have a skin reaction at the place where the bag was placed. This usually happens during the first applications. To relieve, rinse the skin with water and sodium bicarbonate.

    After the treatment, you can massage the excess of oil on your skin to help it penetrate. You can add a drop of essential oil also, that’s what I do.  I would use an oil such as Frankincense, Copaiba, Release , Juniper, ginger, etc…

    If you prefer, you can also clean your skin with warm water mixed with 1 tablespoon of baking soda.

    I hope you enjoyed this article and that you found the information interesting.

    Did you try the castor oil pack? What did you think? Did it help you? Do not hesitate to contact me and give me your comments. I am on Facebook and on Instagram

    Bonne Santé, Stay Healthy!

    Isabelle – Votre Amie Essentielle

    If you like what you see here, make sure to follow me on instagram and facebook.  I post regularly. 




    Effect of ricinoleic acid in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation

    The Oil that Heals” by Dr. William A. McGarey